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Credits & Sources

The Lake Naconiche exhibit was written by Tim Perttula with contributions from Bob Wishoff. Bob Wishoff created the exhibit with help from Steve Black. Funding was provided by the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service and the County of Nacogdoches, Texas.

Dr. Timothy K. Perttula is president of Archeological & Environmental Consultants, LLC, an Austin-based firm specializing in cultural resource management services in Texas and adjacent states. Tim is the author of "The Caddo Nation" as well as many articles and reports dealing with Caddo archeological and historical topics.

Many individuals and groups were instrumental in the success of the archeological research at Lake Naconiche. Among these are Sue Kennedy, former County Judge of Nacogdoches County during most of the project, George Campbell of Nacogdoches County, and Calvin B. Sanders of the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service.

During the course of the project, the field work was completed by excellent crews led by Rodney J. Nelson, Project Archeologist, and including Mark Walters, Roger Bergstrom, Chris Kugler, Rodney Bales, Shawn Marceaux, and James Harrison III. Dr. Tom Middlebrook also helped out on many occasions, and shared his knowledge of Nacogdoches County archeology. The East Texas Archeological Society contributed many weekends during the testing phase of the project by working at sites that the Archeological & Environmental Consultants, LLC crew could not get to.

Rodney Nelson also took most of the photographs of sites and artifacts used in the exhibit. A number of illustrators contributed figures for the Lake Naconiche reports, including Sandra Hannum, T. Clay Schultz, and Chet Walker.

The Caddo Nation of Oklahoma was involved throughout the project. Special thanks are due to the former Caddo council chairs, LaRue Martin Parker and Brenda Edwards, as well as Robert Cast and Bobby Gonzalez of the Cultural Resources Program. Robert Cast wrote most of text covering the history of the consultation, repatriation and reburial (of both human remains and funerary objects) in the Caddo Involvement section. He also provided the reburial photographs.

Finally, credit is due to Dr. James Bruseth and Bill Martin of the Texas Historical Commission (THC). This TBH exhibit is the result of a stipulation in the Memorandum Of Agreement, inserted into the agreement by the THC, to allow the general public to learn about the exciting discoveries at Lake Naconiche.

Print Sources

Corbin, James E.
1989    The Woodland/Caddo Transition in the Southern Caddo Area. In Festschrift in Honor of Jack Hughes, edited by D. Roper, pp. 117-124. Special Publication No. 5, Panhandle Archeological Society, Amarillo.

1998   Reflections on the Early Ceramic Period and the Terminal Archaic in South Central East Texas. Journal of Northeast Texas Archaeology 11:108-116.

2007   Cultural Diversity in the Southern Caddo Region. Journal of Northeast Texas Archaeology 26:11-23.

Corbin, James E. and J. P. Hart
1998    The Washington Square Mound Site: A Middle Caddo Mound Complex in South Central East Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 69:47-78.

Perttula, Timothy K.
1992    "The Caddo Nation": Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Perspectives. University of Texas Press, Austin.

2004    The Prehistoric and Caddoan Archeology of the Northeastern Texas Pineywoods. In The Prehistory of Texas, p. 370-407, edited by Timothy K Perttula, Texas A&M University Press.

Perttula, Timothy K., editor
2000   An Archeological Survey of the Proposed Lake Naconiche, Nacogdoches County, Texas. Report of Investigations No. 35. Archeological & Environmental Consultants, LLC, Austin.

2002   Archeological Investigations at the Proposed Lake Naconiche, Nacogdoches County, Texas. 2 Vols. Report of Investigations No. 42. Archeological & Environmental Consultants, LLC, Austin.

2008   Lake Naconiche Archeology, Nacogdoches County, Texas: Results of the Data Recovery Excavations at Five Prehistoric Sites, 2 vols, Archeological & Environmental Consultants, LLC.

Perttula, Timothy K., Mark Walters, Bo Nelson, Bobby Gonzalez, and Robert Cast, with a contribution by Robert G. Franciscus
2010   Documentation of Associated and Unassociated Caddo Funerary Objects in the Stephen F. Austin State University Collections, Nacogdoches, Texas. Stephen F. Austin State University Press, Nacogdoches.

Smith, F. Todd
1995    The Caddo Indians: Tribes at the Convergence of Empires, 1542-1854. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Story, Dee Ann
1990    Cultural History of the Native Americans. In The Archeology and Bioarcheology of the Gulf Coastal Plain, by D. A. Story, J. A Guy, B. A. Burnett, M. D. Freeman, J. C. Rose, D. G. Steele, B. W. Olive, and K. J. Reinhard, pp. 163-366. Research Series No. 38. 2 Vols. Arkansas Archeological Survey, Fayetteville.

Swanton, John R.
1942    Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians. Bulletin 132. Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.


Tejas: Life and Times of the Caddo. Special exhibit set on Texas Beyond History that highlights many aspects of Caddo life, present and past.

Caddo Conference Organization. Volunteer organization headquartered at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas that is devoted to research and education related to the archeology, history, and ethnology of the Caddo region. They publish the Caddo Archeological Journal and organize the annual Caddo Conference. Check out the Library and Links section of their website for additional source materials.

Tim Perttula
Tim Perttula examining Caddo pottery at Texarkana College, fall 2002. Photo by Mark Walters.