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Credits & Sources

Caddo Fundamentals was written by Steve Black with help from Tim Perttula and many other individuals and organizations who contributed ideas, images, and information.

Advisors and Reviewers: Robert Cast, Cecile Carter, Ann Early, Bobby Gonzalez, Lee Johnson, Frank Schambach, and Dee Ann Story.

Photographers: Steve Black, Cecile Carter, Jeff Girard, Dayna Bowker Lee, Bill Martin, Sharon Mitchell, Marilyn Murrow, Tim Perttula, George Sabo III, Frank Schambach, Donna Smith Spaulding, Elizabeth Stoker, Dee Ann Story, and Mark Walters.

Graphics: Justin Hays (all unattributed maps) and Dee Ann Story.

Artists: T.C. Cannon, Nola Davis, George Nelson, Reeda Peel, and Thompson Williams.

Organizations providing photographs and artwork: Arkansas Archeological Survey,
Caddo Nation Tribal Headquarters, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site, Institute of Texan Cultures, The University of Texas at San Antonio, Louisiana Department of Culture, Recreation, and Tourism, Oklahoma Archaeological Society, Oklahoma Historical Society, Omaha Public Library, PBS&J, Pictures of Record, Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, University of Oklahoma, Smithsonian Institution, Texas Historical Commission, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Watson Library (Northwestern State University), Western History Collections (University of Oklahoma Library), and William Mathers Museum (Indiana University).

Print Sources:

General Caddo and History

Bolton, Herbert E.
1987    The Hasinais: Southern Caddoans as seen by the Earliest Europeans. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Carter, Cecile E.
1995    Caddo Indians: Where We Come From. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Gregory, Hiram F. (editor)
1986    The Southern Caddo: An Anthology. Garland Publishing, New York.

Griffith, William J.
1954    The Hasinai Indians of East Texas as Seen by Europeans, 1687-1772. Philological and Documentary Studies, Vol. 2, No. 3. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans.

Lavere, David L.
1998    The Caddo Chiefdoms: Caddo Economics and Politics,1700-1835. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Newkumet, Vynola Beaver and Howard L. Meredith
1988    Hasinai: A Traditional History of the Caddo Confederacy. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Parsons, Elsie C.
1941    Notes on the Caddo. Memoir 57. American Anthropological Association, Washington D.C.

Smith F. Todd
1995    The Caddo Indians: Tribes at the Convergence of Empires, 1542-1854. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

1996    The Wichita and Caddo Indians—Relations with the U.S., 1846-1901. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Webb, Clarence H. and Hiram F. Gregory
1986    The Caddo Indians of Louisiana. 2nd Edition. Anthropological Study 2. Department of Culture, Recreation, and Tourism, Louisiana Archaeological Survery and Antiquities Commission, Baton Rouge.

Caddo Archeology

Krieger, Alex D.
1946    Culture Complexes and Chronology in Northern Texas, with Extensions of Puebloan Datings to the Mississippi Valley. Publication No. 4640. The University of Texas, Austin.

Perttula, Timmothy K.
1992    The Caddo Nation": Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Perspectives. University of Texas Press, Austin.

2004    The Prehistoric and Caddoan Archeology of the Northeastern Texas Pineywoods, in The Prehistory of Texas, p. 370-407, edited by Timothy K Perttula, Texas A&M University Press.

Perttula, Timmothy K., Ann M. Early, Lois E. Albert, and Jeffery Girard
2006    Caddoan Bibliography, updated edition. Arkansas Archeological Survey Technical Paper 10, Fayetteville.

Moore, C. B.
1912    Some Aboriginal Sites on Red River. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14(4):526-636.

Webb, Clarence H.
1959    The Belcher Mound, A Stratified Caddoan Site in Caddo Parish, Louisiana. Memoirs No. 16. Soceity for American Archeology, Salt Lake City.

Caddoan Languages and Peoples

Chafe, Wallace
1973    Siouan, Iroquoian, and Caddoan. In "Current Trends in Linguistics," edited by T.A. Sebeok. Linguistics in North America 10:1164-1209.

1976 The Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Siouan Languages. Mouton, The Hague.

Hughes, Jack. T.
1968    Prehistory of the Caddoan-Speaking Tribes. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York.

Melnar, Lynette R.
2004    Caddo Verb Morphology. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Parks, Douglas R.
2001    Caddoan Languages. In: Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 13, Plains, p. 80-93, edited by Raymond J. DeMallie. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Taylor, A. R.
1963    The Classification of the Caddoan Languages. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 107(1):51-59.

1963    Comparative Caddoan. International Journal of American Linguistics 29:113-151.

Spiro and Arkansas Basin

Brooks, Robert L.
1996    The Arkansas River Valley: A New Paradigm, Revisionist Perspectives and the Archaeological Record. Caddoan Archeology 7(1):17-27.

Brown, James A.
1996    The Spiro Ceremonial Center: The Archaeology of Arkansas Valley Caddoan Culture in Eastern Oklahoma. 2 Vols. Memoir No. 29. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Merriam, Larry and Christopher Merriam
2004    The Spiro Mound: A Photo Essay. Merriam Station Books, Oklahoma City. [Privately printed book featuring photographs from the collection of Dr. Robert E. Bell.]

Rogers, J. Daniel
1991    A Perspective on Arkansas Basin and Ozark Highland Prehistory. Caddoan Archeology Newsletter II(1):9-16.

Schambach, Frank F.
1990    The Place of Spiro in Southeastern Prehistory: Is It Caddoan or Mississippian. Southeastern Archaeology 9(1):67-69.

1997    Continuing the Discussion of the Spiroans and their Entrepots: A Reply to Brooks' Critique of my New Paradigm for the Archeology of the Arkansas Valley. Caddoan Archeology 7(4):17-46.


General Caddo and History

Official website of the Caddo Nation

Kid-friendly site with general information about Caddo culture.

Online version of 1935 article by William B. Glover entitled "A History of the Caddo Indians" originally published in the Louisiana Historical Quarterly.

Caddo Archeology

Arkansas Archeological Society

Louisiana Archaeological Society

Texas Archeological Society

Caddoan Languages and Peoples

Kiwat Hasinay is asmall nonprofit foundation dedicated to preserving the Caddo language and encouraging its revival. One of the foundation's projects has been an effort to create a community-based program to teach the language to Caddo children.

Native Languages of the Americas website created by a small non-profit group "dedicated to preserving and promoting the indigenous languages of the Western Hemisphere." Extensive information on many Native American languages; Caddoan section a work in progress.

Handbook of Texas Online. Suggested topics:
Amediche Indians
Anadarko Indians
Cachae Indians
Caddo Indians
Canonizochitoui Indians
Caso Indians
Caxo Indians
Cataye Indians
Chaquantie Indians
Dotchetonne Indians
Hacanac Indians
Lacane Indians
Naansi Indians
Nabedache Indians
Nabeyxa Indians
Nabiri Indians
Nacachau Indians
Nacaniche Indians
Nacau Indians
Nacogdoche Indians
Nacono Indians
Nanatsoho Indians
Nasayaha Indians
Nasoni Indians
Natchitoch Indians
Nechaui Indians
Neche Indians
Palaquesson Indians
Tadiva Indians
Vinta Indians

Mississippian World


Cahokia Mounds is a not-for-profit organization managed by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources. This website has detailed information about Cahokia, events, and visiting the site.