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Credits & Sources

This exhibit is truly the work of many, past and present.

An initial, succinct draft of the exhibit was written by Jeff Indeck and Rolla Shaller, the curator and assistant curator of archeology, respectively, at the Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum (PPHM). As the exhibit plans grew, TBH editor Steve Black expanded the text and incorporated many comments thoughtfully made by Chris Lintz. Lintz is credited as one of the exhibit authors because of both his extensive draft comments and the fact that his dissertation and Stamper site articles were drawn upon repeatedly. Historical insights were also borrowed from the other Plains Villager exhibits written by David Hughes, Doug Boyd, and John Erickson. Helpful outside (peer) review comments were made by Scott Brosowske and Pat Mercado-Allinger.

Even more individuals helped provide the images. Rolla Shaller and Chris Lintz deserve top billing. Time and time again, Shaller scanned images from his own photograph collection and from the archives of the Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum. Special thanks are also due to archivist Betty Bustos and Jeff Indeck at the PPHM for archival access, scans, photographs, and information. Lintz gave Black access to his own slide collection and provided leads on sources for many other images. Other photographers and sources are credited in the image captions.

Search the Handbook of Texas Online for the following topics: Antelope Creek Phase, Buried City, Floyd V. Studer, Panhandle-Plains Historical Society, and Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum.
Oklahoma's Past, part of the website of the Oklahoma Archeological Survey that presents useful summaries of several excavated Plains Village sites in Oklahoma via a clickable state map. In particular, check out the entries for Texas County (Two Sisters site), Beaver County (Roy Smith site), Cimmaron County (Kenton Caves), and Roger Mills County (Zimms site), among others.
Antelope Creek Ruins, Chronology of Exploration. This page provides some useful historical information and quotations, but it is not a complete and comprehensive chronology.
Prehistory and Past Environments of the Dempsey Divide. This website focuses on an area of western Oklahoma that has seen intensive research led by landowner and archeologist Pete Thurmond. The "Published Articles" section contains PDF versions of various journal articles related to the Plains Villagers of Oklahoma and the Texas Panhandle.

Print Sources

[See also the "Credit and Sources" sections of the other Plains Villagers exhibits.]

Baker, Ele A. and Jewel A. Baker
2000 Archaeological Excavations of Antelope Creek Ruins and Alibates Ruins, Panhandle Aspect: 1938-1941. Panhandle Archeological Society, Publication 8. [Available from: Panhandle Archeological Society, PO Box 814, Amarillo TX 79045]

Baerreis, David A., and Reid A. Bryson
1965 Historical Climatology and the Southern Plains: A Preliminary Statement. Oklahoma Anthropological Society Bulletin 13:69-75.

1966 Dating the Panhandle Aspect Cultures. Oklahoma Anthropological Society Bulletin 14:105-116.

Brooks, Robert L.
2004 From Stone Slab Architecture to Abandonment. In: Timothy K. Perttula, ed., The Prehistory of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Campbell, Robert G.
1976 The Panhandle Aspect of the Chaquaqua Plateau. University Graduate Studies 11. Texas Tech University, Lubbock.

Couzzourt, Jim and Beverly A. Schmidt-Couzzourt
1996 The 1969 Texas Archeological Society Field School at Blue Creek, Moore County, in the Texas Panhandle. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 67:1-113.

Duncan, Marjorie A.
2002 Adaptation During the Antelope Creek Phase: A Diet Breadth and Site Catchment Analysis of the Subsistence Strategy at the Two Sisters Site. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Oklahoma.

Duffield, Lathel F.
1964 Three Panhandle Aspect Sites at Sanford Reservoir, Hutchinson County, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 35:19-81.

1970 Some Panhandle Aspect Sites: Their Vertebrates and Paleoecology. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.

Etchieson, G. Meeks, and James E. Couzzourt
1987 Shoreline Survey at Lake Meredith Recreation Area in the Texas Panhandle. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Southwest Region, Amarillo.

Green, F. Earl
1986 Report on Archaeological Salvage in the Sanford Reservoir Area. Panhandle Archeological Society, Publication 4. [Available from: Panhandle Archeological Society, PO Box 814, Amarillo TX 79045]

Hobbs, Hulda
1941 Two Texas Panhandle Ruins. El Palacio 48(6):121-129.

Holden, W. C.
1929 Some Recent Explorations and Excavations in Northwest Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society 1:23-35.

Johnston, C. Stuart
1939 A Report on the Antelope Creek Ruin. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society 11:190-202.

Krieger, Alex D.
1946 Cultural Complexes and Chronology of Northern Texas. University of Texas, Austin. [Download select sections in PDF format.]

LeBlanc, Steven A.
1999 Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Lintz, Christopher R.
1978 Architecture and Radiocarbon Dating of the Antelope Creek Focus: A Test of Campbell's Model. Plains Anthropologist 23(82, Part I):319-328.

1986 Architecture and Community Variability within the Antelope Creek Phase of the Texas Panhandle. Studies in Oklahoma's Past No. 14. Oklahoma Archeological Survey, Norman.

1989 The Upper Canark Regional Variant: Comparison and Contrast of the Antelope Creek and Apishapa Phases of the Southwestern Plains. In: Roper, Beryl C., ed, In the Light of Past Experience: Papers in honor of Jack T. Hughes. Panhandle Archeological Society, Publication 5. [Available from: Panhandle Archeological Society, PO Box 814, Amarillo TX 79045]

2001 Architecture and Chronology at Landergin Mesa, 41OL2, Oldham County, Texas. La Tierra 28(2):10-39

2003-2004 "The Stamper Site, 34TX1, Texas County, Oklahoma," four part series that appears in Oklahoma Archeology: Journal of the Oklahoma Anthropological Society , beginning with Part 1 in Volume 51(2):13-36.

Moorehead, Warren K.
1931 Archaeology of the Arkansas River Valley. Published for the Department of Archaeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., by the Yale University Press.

Schmidt-Couzzourt, Beverly A.
1983 The Chicken Creek Site: Archeological Testing in the Lake Meredith Recreation Area, Potter County, Texas. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Southwest Region, Amarillo.

Studer, Floyd V.
1931 Archeological Survey of the North Panhandle of Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society 3:73-75.

1934 Texas Panhandle Culture Ruin No. 55. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society 6:80-96.

1955 Archeology of the Texas Panhandle. Panhandle-Plains Historical Review 28:87-95.

Watson, Virginia
1950 The Optima Focus of the Panhandle Aspect: Description and Analysis. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society 21:7-68.

Photo of Jeff Indeck
Author Jeff Indeck pauses to take a compass reading on an archeological survey in the Texas Panhandle. Jeff is curator of archeology for the Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum. Photo by Brett Cruse.
Photo of Chris Lintz
Author Chris Lintz was introduced to Antelope Creek archeology in the early 1970s as a graduate student at the University of Oklahoma. He has been at it ever since. Today he is a consulting archeologist for Geo-Marine, Inc. and makes his home in Austin, Texas.
Photo of Rolla Shaller
Author Rolla Shaller on an archeological survey in the Texas Panhandle. Rolla is assistant curator of archeology at the Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum and one of many former students of Jack Hughes. Photo by Brett Cruse.