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Credits and Sources

The McKinney Roughs Site exhibit was written by Steve Carpenter with contributions from Kevin Miller, both of SWCA Environmental Consultants of Austin. Carpenter served as Principal Investigator for the testing investigations at the site, and Miller served as Principal Investigator for the data recovery investigations. The exhibit was created by TBH editor Susan Dial and developed for the web by TBH editorial assistant Heather Smith. Unless otherwise noted, photos were taken by SWCA staff; maps were drawn by Carole Medlar Carpenter of SWCA.

Steve Carpenter is a project archeologist who has worked for SWCA for 6 years. His expertise is the prehistoric Native American cultures of Texas and northeastern Mexico, areas of interest that have been cultivated by work with the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at the University of Texas, the Texas General Land Office, and SWCA. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in Anthropology from Texas A&M University and a Master’s degree from the University of Texas at Austin.

Kevin Miller is the cultural resources Program Director for SWCA’s Texas offices, where he has worked for nearly 15 years. His experience includes the archeology of Texas, southern Oklahoma, Arkansas, New Mexico, Arizona, and encompasses a wide range of archeological projects, from large-scale excavations or field surveys to historic studies. His expertise includes prehistoric lithic technology, subsistence reconstruction, and resource management. He holds both Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Anthropology from The University of Texas at Austin. Mr. Miller currently serves as Past-President of the Council of Texas Archeologists.

The Woodbine Development Corporation and Bastrop Resort Partners, L.P., sponsored the archeological investigations on behalf of Hyatt Regency Lost Pines Resort and Spa. This exhibit is a public-education component of those investigations as stipulated by the Lower Colorado River Authority, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Texas Historical Commission.


McKinney Roughs Nature Park
Maintained and operated by the Lower Colorado River Authority, this 1140-acre park offers a range of recreational activities and opportunities to view the diverse environments and wildlife near the McKinney Roughs site.

Hyatt Regency Lost Pines Resort and Spa
Website of the Hyatt hotel which sponsored archeological investigations at the site.

Print Sources

Baker, Victor R. and M. M. Penteado-Orellano
1978   Fluvial Sedimentation Conditioned by Quaternary Climatic Change in Central Texas. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 48:433-51.

Binford, Lewis R.
1980   Willow Smoke and Dogs' Tail: Hunter Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation. American Antiquity 45:4-20.

1983   In Pursuit of the Past. Thames and Hudson, London.

Steve Carpenter
Kevin Miller
Cover of the 2006 report on the McKinney Roughs site by SWCA Environmental Consultants.

Bond, Clell
1978   Three Archeological Sites at Hoxie Bridge, Williamson County, Texas. Report 43, Anthropology Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station..

Carpenter, Steve, Michael Chavez, Kevin Miller, and K. Lawrence
2006   The McKinney Roughs Site 41BP627: A Stratified Late Archaic II Site on the Colorado River Terraces, Bastrop County, Texas. SWCA Cultural Resource Report No. 02-313. SWCA Environmental Consultants Austin, Texas.

Collins, Michael B.
1995   Forty Years of Archeology in Central Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 66:361-400.

Fields , Ross
1995   The Archeology of the Post Oak Savannah of East Central Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 66: 301-330.

Kotter, Steve, Dan Utley, and G. Sundborg
1996   McKinney Roughs: An Intensive Cultural Resource Survey along the Colorado River, Bastrop County, Texas. Cultural Resource Report No. 6. Lower Colorado River Authority, Land and Environmental Services. Austin, Texas.

Krieger, Alex D.
1948   Importance of the "Gilmore Corridor" in Culture Contacts between Middle America and the Eastern United States. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society 19:155-178.

Lawrence, K., Kevin A. Miller, Lee Nordt, and B. Young
2002   Archaeological Investigations for the McKinney Roughs Resort Project, Bastrop County, Texas. SWCA Cultural Resource Report No. 01-354.

Lee, Richard B.
1979   The Dobe !Kung. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

Malof, Andrew F.
1998   Cultural Resource Survey of the Proposed LCRA McKinney Roughs Equestrian Trail in Bastrop County, Texas. Lower Colorado River Authority, Community Services.

Whitelaw, T.
1991   Some Dimensions of Variability in the Social Organization of Community Space among Foragers. Ethnoarchaeological Approaches to Mobile Campsites, pp 139-188. Edited by C. Gamble & W.A. Boismier. International Monographs in Prehistory, Ann Arbor, Michigan.