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Credits and Sources

The El Paso Missions and Settlements exhibit is the work of TBH assistant editor Carly Whelan and TBH editor Susan Dial.  The Ysleta Jacal Site section was written by Myles Miller. TBH web developer Heather Smith contributed to the writing and developed the exhibit for the web, with the help of Krutie Thakkar. Archeologist David Hill provided helpful review. Numerous El Paso museums and organizations contributed images to illustrate these pages, including the Centennial Museum and Library of the University of Texas at El Paso, the Tigua Cultural Center, the El Paso Museum of Archaeology, and the El Paso Community Foundation.  Batcho and Kauffman Assoc. of El Paso provided slides from excavations at the Ysleta WIC site.

Myles Miller is an archeologist with Geo-Marine, Inc., in El Paso. Miller has been professionally involved with the prehistory of the Jornada Mogollon and Trans-Pecos regions since returning to his home town of El Paso upon completion of graduate school in 1983. He first become interested in the region during grade school while accompanying members of the El Paso Archaeological Society during trips to prehistoric sites across northern Chihuahua. For the past 25 years he has conducted research and cultural resources management projects throughout the region and has participated in numerous excavations of prehistoric villages and hunter-gatherer campsites and historic Native American settlements in west Texas, southern New Mexico, and southeastern Arizona. He presently serves as a Principal Investigator with Geo-Marine, Inc. and supervises archeological consulting work performed at Fort Bliss.


Centennial Museum, University of Texas at El Paso

Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin

El Paso County Historical Society

El Paso Historical Government Documents

El Paso Museum of Archaeology

Ysleta del Sur Pueblo
Official site of the Tigua tribe, pueblo, and cultural center in El Paso.

Ysleta Mission
Website of Mission de Corpus Christi de la Ysleta del Sur includes a wealth of historical and genealogical information, notice of community events, and photographs.

Prehistory of the Trans-Pecos Mountains and Basins
This section on Texas Beyond History provides more information about earlier people of El Paso and the larger region. See also Firecracker Pueblo and Madera Quemada exhibits to learn about the Jornada Mogollon and the pueblos of El Paso and southern New Mexico.

Print Sources

Bartlett, John Russell
1965   Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora, and Chihuahua connected with the United States Boundary Commission during the Years 1850, ’51, ’52, and ’53. Vol. II.  Reprinted by Rio Grande Press, Inc., Chicago.

Brown, David O., Timothy B. Graves, John A. Peterson and Mark Willis
1995   El Paso County Lower Valley Water District Authority Phase II Water Supply and Wastewater Project Archaeological Testing. Texas Antiquities Permit No. 1452, Archaeological Research Inc., El Paso, Texas.

Brown, David O., John A. Peterson and David V. Hill
1999   Discourse in Clay: Ceramics and Culture in Historic Socorro, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 70:421-438.

Chipman, Donald E.
1992   Spanish Texas, 1519-1821. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Cisneros, José
1984   Riders across the Centuries: Horsemen of the Spanish Borderlands. Texas Western Press, El Paso.

Evans, Consuelo T.
1989   An Analysis of Burials from the Old Socorro Mission, Socorro, Texas. The Artifact 27(1):1-50.

Fewkes, J. Walter
1902   The Pueblo Settlements near El Paso, Texas. American Anthropologist 4(1):57-75.

Gerald, Rex E.
1990a   Missions, Presidios, Haciendas, and Caminos of the Paso del Norte Area. The Artifact 28(3):41-58. Download Download pdf

1990b   The Old Socorro Mission Site Test Excavations–1981-83. The Artifact 28(3):1-29.

1974   Aboriginal Use and Occupation by Tigua, Manso, and Suma Indians.  In Apache Indians III, edited by David H. Hoor, pp. 9-212.  Garland Publishing Inc., New York.

Hackett, Charles W.
1937   Historical Documents Relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya and Approaches Thereto, to 1773, Collected by Adolph F. A. Bandelier and Fanny R. Bandelier. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, Papers of the Department of Historical Research, No. 330, Vol. I-III, Washington D.C.

Hammond, George P. and Agapito Rey
1953   Don Juan De Oñate, Colonizer of New Mexico 1595-1628. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Hendricks, Rick
2002   Spanish Colonial History of the Clint-Fabens Area. In: The 1995 San Elizario Plaza Archaeological Project, edited by John A. Peterson, Timothy B. Graves and David V. Hill, pp. 33-37. Texas Antiquities Permit Number 1539, The University of Texas at El Paso.

Hill, David V.
2005   A Historic Red-On-Brown Vessel from Nuestra Senora del Socorro, Socorro, Texas. In Inscriptions, Papers in Honor of Richard and Nathalie Woodbury, edited by Regge N. Wiseman, Thomas C. O’Laughlin, and Cordelia T. Snow, pp.67-74. The Archaeological Society of New Mexico.

Horgan, Paul
1984   Great River: The Rio Grande in North American History. Vol. 1, Indians and Spain. Vol. 2, Mexico and the United States. University Press of New England, Hanover.

Lange, Charles, and Carol Riley
1970   The Southwestern Journals of Adolph F. Bandelier, 1883-1884. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Lockhart, William
2002   San Elizario Presidio History. In: The 1995 San Elizario Plaza Archaeological Project, edited by John A. Peterson, Timothy B. Graves and David V. Hill, pp. 38-54. Texas Antiquities Permit Number 1539, The University of Texas at El Paso.

Martinez, Oscar J.
2000   The First Peoples: A History of Native Americans at the Pass of the North. The Pass of the North Heritage Corridor, El Paso Community Foundation, El Paso.

Miller, Myles R.
2001   Post-Pueblo, Protohistoric, and Early Mission Period Archeology in Western Trans-Pecos Texas and South Central New Mexico, A.D. 1450-1680. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 72:105-163.

Miller, Myles R. and Beth Laura O’Leary
1992   The Ysleta Clinic Site: A Spanish Colonial Period Native American Settlement in the Lower Valley of El Paso, Texas. Cultural Resources Research Report No. 2, Batcho & Kauffman Associates, Las Cruces and El Paso. 

Miller, Myles R. and Nancy A. Kenmotsu
2004   Prehistory of the Jornada Mogollon and Eastern Trans-Pecos Regions of West Texas. In: The Prehistory of Texas, edited by Timothy K. Perttula, pp. 205-265. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Myers, Terri
1997   Historical Narrative and Cultural Resources Survey:  Hueco Tanks State Historical Park.  Hardy-Heck-Moore & Associates, Inc., Austin, Texas.

O'Crouley y O'Donnell, Pedro Alonso
1774     A Description of the Kingdom of New Spain. Translation by  Sean Galvin, 1972. John Howell Publishers, San Francisco.

Peterson, John A.
2002   Cultural Resource Background. In: The 1995 San Elizario Plaza Archaeological Project, edited by John A. Peterson, Timothy B. Graves and David V. Hill, pp. 24-32. Texas Antiquities Permit Number 1539, The University of Texas at El Paso.

Schroeder, Albert H.
1974   A Study of the Apache Indians. Garland Publications Inc., New York.

Tigua Indian Cultural Center
n.d.    The Tiguas: People of the Sun. Tigua Indian Cultural Center, El Paso, Texas.

Timmons, W. H.
1990  El Paso: A Borderlands History. Texas Western Press, El Paso.