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Trans Pecos Main
Prehistoric Texas Main

Credits and Sources

Most of this exhibit was adapted from Tom O'Laughlin's recent article, "Long Lessons and Big Surprises: Firecracker Pueblo" (full citation below), and appears courtesy of the Archaeological Society of New Mexico. Additional sections were written by Tom O'Laughlin and Steve Black. All of the photographs appear courtesy of O'Laughlin.

The mural by George Nelson is based on O'Laughlin's archeological data from Firecracker Pueblo and appears courtesy of the artist and the Institute of Texan Cultures. The 20-x-24-foot original is on display at the Institute in San Antonio.


Madera Quemada exhibit on TBH. Jornada Mogollon pueblo not far north of Firecracker.
Website of the El Paso Archaeological Society, one of the oldest learned societies in Texas, and co-sponsor of the Firecracker investigations.

Videos and Children's Book

Made in Texas, Captured Moments #17, The Rock Art of Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife production, 1987, featuring the 1986 TAS field school.

Condia-Williams, Charlotte
1994 Firecracker Pueblo. Sunrise Publications, Hillsboro, New Mexico.
[A children's book and companion video with stories that bring the village to life. Available through Wilderness Park Museum, 4301 Transmountain Road, El Paso, TX 79924 or Sunrise Publications, PO Box 186, Hillsboro, NM 88042. Online version as PDF]

Print Sources

Many interesting articles related to the Jornada Mogollon can be found in The Artifact, a journal published by the El Paso Archaeological Society, Transactions of the Regional Archaeological Symposium for Southeastern New Mexico and Western Texas, a publication of annual meetings of the Southwestern Federation of Archaeological Societies, the Bulletin of The Texas Archeological Society, and reports of the Jornada Mogollon Conferences and Mogollon Conferences by various publishers.

Bentley, Mark T.
1981   El Paso's Prehistoric Past. Published by the author. El Paso.

C. B. Cosgrove
1947   Caves of the Upper Gila and Hueco Areas in New Mexico and Texas. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 24, Harvard University. Cambridge.

Florence H. Ellis and Laurens Hammack
1968   The Inner Sanctum of Feather Cave, A Mogollon Sun and Earth Shrine Linking Mexico and the Southwest. American Antiquity 33(1):25-44.
[Discusses caves that include perishable Pueblo period artifacts.]

Human Systems Research
1973   Technical Manual: 1973 Survey of the Tularosa Basin, the Research Design. Human Systems Research. Albuquerque.
[Good general background information and cultural ecology of area just north of the Hueco Bolson.]

Donald J. Lehmer
1948   The Jornada Branch of the Mogollon. Social Science Bulletin No. 17. The University of Arizona.

1958   A Review of Trans-Pecos Texas Archeology. Bulletin of The Texas Archeological Society 29 (1):109-144.
[Donald Lehmer's original 1948 definition of the Jornada Mogollon and the later review article are still important references.]

LeBlanc, Steven A. and Michael E. Whalen
1979   An Archaeological Synthesis of Southcentral and Southwestern New Mexico. Office of Contract Archaeology, The University of New Mexico. Albuquerque.

MacNeish, Richard S., editor
1993   Preliminary Investigations of the Archaic in the Region of Las Cruces, New Mexico. Historic and Natural Resources Report 9, Directorate of Environment, Fort Bliss. El Paso.

Miller, Myles R. and Tim B. Graves
2009   Madera Quemada Pueblo: Archaeological Investigations of a 14th Century Jornada Mogollon Pueblo. GMI Report 679EP, Geo-Marine, Inc., Plano, Texas, and Fort Bliss Cultural Resources Report 03-12, Fort Bliss Environmental Division, Fort Bliss Garrison Command, Fort Bliss, Texas.

O'Laughlin, Thomas C.
2001   Long Lessons and Big Surprises: Firecracker Pueblo. In: Following Through: Papers in Honor of Phyllis S. Davis, edited by Regge N. Wiseman, T. C. O'Laughlin, and Cordelia T. Snow, pp. 115-131. Archaeological Society of New Mexico: 27.
[Available through the Archaeological Society of New Mexico, PO Box 3485, Albuquerque, NM 87190-3485.]

Stuart, David E. and Rory P. Gauthier
1981   Prehistoric New Mexico: Background for Survey. Historic Preservation Bureau. Santa Fe.

Whalen, Michael E.
1981   Cultural-Ecological Aspects of the Pithouse-to-Pueblo Transition in a Portion of the Southwest. American Antiquity 46(1):75-92.