University of Texas at Austin wordmarkUniversity of Texas at AustinCollege of Liberal Arts wordmarkCollege of Liberal Arts
Texas Beyond History
TBH Home
Plateaus and Canyonlands Main
Prehistoric Texas Main

Credits & Sources

Montage of photographs of people who have contributed to research on Kincaid Shelter

The Kincaid Shelter exhibit is based on the work of Glen Evans, Thomas N. Campbell, Michael B. Collins, Gene Mear, Melissa C. Winans and Thomas R. Hester. TBH Co-Editor Susan Dial created the exhibit and wrote most of the sections, examining many of the old collections and records to present new data and previously unpublished imagery. She also wrote the Time Travel student activity. Education editor Carol Schlenk wrote the teachers curricula and "Meet the Critters" student activity. Webmaster Meg Kemp created image collages and exhibits and executed the web programming, including interactive student activities. Aaron Norment and Monica Trejo photographed the artifacts from the TARL Collections. Dee Ann Story, Director Emeritus of TARL, and Ernest Lundelius, Director Emeritus of the UT-Austin Vertebrate Paleontology Laboratory, served as reviewers and provided helpful comments, as did Collins, Evans, Mear, Hester, and Winans. The main page illustration was painted by Charles Shaw.

Work on the Kincaid exhibit was supported by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Texas Preservation Trust Fund (Texas Historical Commission). Additional funding was provided by XTO Energy of Fort Worth, the Texas Archeological Society, and the Council of Texas Archeologists.

A special fund benefitting the Kincaid Shelter project on TBH was created to honor the memory of David Russell Mear, son of Gene and Tonie Mear, who died suddenly in April 2005. Many individuals, including Mear's family, friends, and Utopia area residents have contributed to this lasting tribute.

Photo of Glen Evans
Glen Evans. Photo courtesy Texas Memorial Museum.

Our knowledge of Kincaid has been slowly evolving since field investigations were completed in 1953. T.N. Campbell and Glen Evans were determined to produce a report, an effort that was later taken over by Michael B. Collins and Gene Mear. As yet, comprehensive analysis and full reporting has not been accomplished. In this exhibit, we have brought some of the unpublished material to light and included short extracts and syntheses of articles by these researchers, some of which may be read and downloaded as PDF files (see citations below).

Glen Evans directed excavations at the Kincaid site in 1948. With broad expertise as a geologist, paleontologist, and naturalist, he well fits the term, "Renaissance man." As Associate Director of the Texas Memorial Museum, Evans investigated some of the most significant "early man" sites in Texas and the southwest, including Lubbock Lake, Blackwater Draw, and the Miami site, as well as the paleontological "treasure trove," Friesenhahn Cave. His multi-year excavations at the Odessa Meteor site included the discovery and identification of three craters, bringing new understanding to meteors on a worldwide scale. Over his years of field work, Evans collected or acquired many of the exemplary minerals and cultural artifacts on display at the TMM. In his small volume of anecdotes titled, Wildness at Risk, Evans reflects on the changes he has seen across the southwest landscape. In tribute to his work, the Texas Memorial Museum mounted a display entitled The Compleat Naturalist in downtown Austin. More detailed information on his life and work is available at

Photo of Thomas Campbell
Thomas Campbell. Photo by Michael B. Collins.

Tom Campbell, professor of anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin for more than 30 years, led UT Field School operations at Kincaid in 1953. After analyzing much of the Kincaid artifact collection, he began a draft report on the site that was never finished. Best known as an ethnohistorian, Campbell researched and wrote extensively on the historic Indian groups of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico, including many obscure bands known only through scant accounts by explorers and missionaries. Campbell died in 2003.

Photo of Michael Collins
Michael Collins. Photo by Susan Dial.

Archeologist Mike Collins took on the Kincaid project in the late 1980s, re-analyzing the Paleoindian materials and identifying Clovis artifacts in the collection. A Research Associate at the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, he has worked with prehistoric lithic collections from North, Central and South America and Europe. In Texas, he has investigated several significant Paleoindian sites, including Gault and Wilson-Leonard, and analyzed the Paleoindian evidence from the Pavo Real site. Currently he is completing analysis of Clovis materials from the Gault site for an upcoming monograph.

Photo of gene Mear
Gene Mear. Photo by Susan Dial.

In addition to "discovering" the Kincaid Shelter as a student, Gene Mear enjoyed a long and successful career as a petroleum geologist, working for drilling companies in Oklahoma, Colorado and Texas. A heart ailment in 1993 brought his prospecting to a halt, but his retirement was short lived. He joined Mike Collins at TARL in working on the Kincaid collection, filling several ledger pads with columns of neatly enscribed measurements and attributes of the hundreds of stone tools. He also did the aerial geography of the Wilson-Leonard site, as well as various archeological surveys in East Texas and in San Antonio.

Photo of Melissa Winans
Melissa Winans. Photo by Susan Dial.

Vertebrate Paleontologist Melissa Winans analyzed the faunal remains from Kincaid in the late 1970s and wrote her Ph.D dissertation on Equus, the extinct American horse which was well-represented in faunal remains from the site. She served as Collections Manager of the UT Vertebrate Paleontology Laboratory and presently is Senior LAN Administrator for the Texas Memorial Museum at UT-Austin.

Photo of Thomas Hester
Thomas Hester

Thomas R. Hester, professor emeritus in the Anthropology Department at UT-Austin and former Director of TARL, examined the Kincaid collection and coordinated a trace element sourcing analysis of the obsidian projectile point base found in Zone 4 of the shelter.

Print Sources

Campbell, Thomas Nolan
1988 The Indians of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico: Selected Writings of Thomas Nolan Campbell. Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

Campbell, Thomas N., Glen L. Evans, and Michael B. Collins with contributions by Melissa Winans
n.d. Archeological Investigations at Kincaid Rockshelter, Uvalde County, Texas
Draft sections of unpublished manuscript, on file at TARL.

Chandler, C. K.
1991 An Engraved Pebble from Val Verde County, Texas. La Tierra 18(2):32-37.

Collins, Michael B.
1999 Clovis Blade Technology. University of Texas Press, Austin.

1990 The Archeological Sequence at Kincaid Rockshelter, Uvalde County, Texas. Transactions of the 25th Regional Archeological Symposium for Southeastern New Mexico and Western Texas. Midland Archeological Society, Midland.

Collins, M. B., G. L. Evans, T. N. Campbell, M. C. Winans, and C. E. Mear
1989 Clovis Occupation at Kincaid Shelter, Texas. Current Research in the Pleistocene 6: 3-4. Download PDF file.

Collins, Michael B., Glen L. Evans and Thomas N. Campbell
1988 Paleoindian Components at Kincaid Rockshelter, Uvalde County, Texas. Paper read at the 59th annual meeting, Texas Archeological Society, Houston. Copy on file at TARL. Download PDF file.

Hester, Thomas R.
1971 Archeological Investigations at the La Jita Site, Uvalde County, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 42:51-148.

Hester, Thomas R., Glen L. Evans, Frank Asaro, Fred Stross, T. N. Campbell, and Helen Michel
1985 Trace Element Analysis of an Obsidian Paleo-Indian Projectile Point from Kincaid Rockshelter, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 56.

Hudler, Dale
1996 Determining Clear Fork Tool Function: An Approach Centered on Use-Wear. Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

Libby, W. F.
1955 Radiocarbon Dating. University of Chicago Press.

Mear, C. E.

1998 Terrace Deposits and Late Quaternary Climate, South-Central Edwards Plateau, Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 69:79-88.

Mock, Shirley B.
1987 The Painted Pebbles of the Lower Pecos: A Study of Medium, Form, and Content. Unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Texas at San Antonio.

Parsons, Mark
1986 Painted Pebbles: Styles and Chronology. In Ancient Texans, Rock Art and Lifeways along the Lower Pecos by Harry J. Shafer. Texas Monthly Press.

Sellards, E. H.
1952 Early Man in America. University of Texas Press.

Suhm, Dee Ann, Alex Krieger, and Edward B. Jelks
1954 An Introductory Handbook of Texas Archeology. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 25.

Gabriel Tous (Translator)

1930 Ramón Expedition: Espinosa's Diary of 1716, Preliminary Studies of the Texas Catholic Historical Society.

Turner, Alan
1997 The Big Cats and their Fossil Relatives. Columbia University Press, New York.

"Glen Evans, the Compleat Naturalist," online exhibit by the Jackson School Museum of Earth Science includes highlights of his work and a biographical sketch.
Handbook of Texas Online section on Kincaid site, by Michael B. Collins.
TBH webpage on excavations and findings at the Gault site. Located in Bell County, Texas, the site has an extensive Clovis component.
Texas A&M's Center for the Study of the First Americans provides excellent online resources about newest discoveries and ongoing research into ancient peoples, technologies, and paleoenvironments.
Website on Pleistocene animals by the American Museum of Natural History, with images, theories on extinction and other information.
La Brea Tar Pits and its excellent collection of fossil Pleistocene animals is highlighted in the website of the George Page Museum in Los Angeles.