Texas Beyond History
TBH Home
Plateaus and Canyonlands Main
Prehistoric Texas Main

Credits and Sources

The Native Peoples of the Plateaus and Canyonlands exhibit was written by Dr. Nancy Kenmotsu, director of Cultural Resource Management at the Texas Department of Transportation. TBH Co-Editor Susan Dial developed the exhibit and imagery and contributed sections to the writing.

Kenmotsu holds an M.A. from the University of Colorado and Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Texas at Austin, with her doctoral studies focused on the native peoples of the Junta de los Ríos region of west Texas. She and Dr. Mariah Wade are co-authors of Amistad National Recreation Area: American Indian Tribal Affiliation Study, An Ethnohistoric Literature Review. Wade also is the author of The Native Americans of the Texas Edwards Plateau. Both works were major resources consulted in these exhibits (see complete citations below).

Learn More: Historic Encounters in the Plateaus and Canyonlands

Print Sources

Archivo General de las Indias
Audiencia de Guadalajara, 1592-1821, Audiencia de México, 1590-1819. Manuscripts on file at the Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin.

Archivo del Hidalgo del Parral
1670A Autos de Guerra contra los Indios Rebeldes por el General Juan Antonio de Garcia. Microfilm on file Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Library, the University of Texas at Austin

Berlandier, Jean Louis
1980 Journey to Mexico during the Years 1826 to 1834.Two Vols. Translated by Sheila Ohlendorf, Josette Bigelow, and Mary Standifer. Texas State Historical Association, Austin.

Bolton, Eugene
1916 Spanish Exploration in the Southwest, 1542-1706. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.

Bureau of Indian Affairs
Reels 1-4, 1847-1859. Microfilm on file at the Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin.

Campbell, T.N.
1988 The Indians of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico, Selected Writings of Thomas Nolan Campbell. Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, The University of Texas at Austin.

Catlin, George
1844 Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Conditions of North American Indians. Library of Congress.

Chipman, Donald
1992 Spanish Texas, 1519-1821. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Dobyns, Henry
1973 The Mescalero Apache People. Indian Tribal Series, Phoenix.

Dunn, William E.
1911 Apache Relations in Texas,1718-1750. Texas Historical Association Quarterly XIV:198-274.

Ewers, John C. (Editor)
1969 The Indians of Texas in 1830 by Jean Louis Berlandier. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Gunnerson, Dolores A.
1974 The Jicarilla Apaches, A Study in Survival on the High Plains. Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb, Illinois.

Gunnerson, James H. and Dolores A. Gunnerson
1988 Ethnohistory of the High Plains. Cultural Resource Series No.26, Bureau of Land Management, Colorado.

Hadley, Diana, Thomas H. Naylor, and Mardith K. Schuetz-Miller
The Presidio and Militia on the Northern Frontier of New Spain, a Documentary History. Vol. 2, Part 2: The Central Corridor and Texas Corridor, 1700-1765. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Imhoff, Brian (Editor)
2002 The Diary of Juan Dominguez de Mendoza’s Expedition into Texas (1683-1684), A Critical Edition of the Spanish Text with Facsimile Reproductions. William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies, Dallas.

Jackson, Jack (Editor) with William C. Foster
1995 Imaginary Kingdom: Texas as Seen by the Rivera and Rubi Military Expeditions, 1727 and 1767. Texas State Historical Association, Austin.

John, Elizabeth (editor) and John Wheat (translator)
1989 Views from the Apache Frontier: Report on the Northern Provinces of New Spain by Jose Cortex, Lieutenant in the Royal Corps of Engineers, 1799. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Kendall, Dorothy Steinbomer
1974 Gentilz, Artist of the Old Southwest. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Kenmotsu, Nancy A.
2001 Seeking Friends, Avoiding Enemies: The Jumano Response to Spanish Colonization, A.D. 1580-1750. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 72: 23-44.

Kenmotsu, Nancy A. and Mariah F. Wade
2002 Amistad National Recreation Area, Del Rio, Texas, American Indian Tribal Affiliation Study Phase I: Ethnohistoric Literature Review. National Park Service and Archeological Studies Program, Report No. 34, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin.

Kessell, John
1979 Kiva, Cross, and Crown: The Pecos Indians in New Mexico 1540-1840.University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Kirkland, Forrest and W. W. Newcomb
1967 The Rock Art of the Texas Indians. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Levy, Jerrold E.
2001 Kiowa. In Handbook of North American Indians, Vol.13, Part 2, Plains: 907-925, edited by Raymond J. DeMallie. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. BIA 1854-1857

Mooney, James
1898 Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians. In Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Smithsonian Institution, 1895-96, by J. W. Powell, director, Part 1:141-447. Government Printing Office, Washington.

Moorehead, Max L.
1968 The Apache Frontier: Jacobo Ugarte and Spanish-Indian Relations in Northern New Spain,1766-1791. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Newcomb, W. W.
1993 Historic Indians of Central Texas. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 64:1-64.

Opler, Morris E.
2001 Lipan Apache.InHandbook of North American Indians, Vol.13, Part 2: 941-952.

1983 The Apachean Culture Pattern and Its Origins. In Handbook of North American Indians, Vol.10, Southwest: 368-392.

1983 Mescalero Apache. In Handbook of North American Indians, Vol.10, Southwest: 419-439.

Sjoberg, Andree
1953 Lipan Apache Culture in Historical Perspective. Journal of Anthropological Research 9:76-98.

Teja, Jesús de la (Editor) and John Wheat (Translator)
2004 Ramon de Murillo’s Plan for the Reform of New Spain’s Frontier Defenses. Southwestern Historical Quarterly 57(4): 501-534.

Tunnell, Curtis D. and W.W. Newcomb, Jr
1969 A Lipan Apache Mission: San Lorenzo de La Santa Cruz1762-1771. Bulletin of the Texas Memorial Museum 14, The University of Texas at Austin.

Wade, Maria F.
2003 The Native Americans of the Texas Edwards Plateau 1582-1799. University of Texas Press. Austin.

2001 Cultural Fingerprints: The Native Americans of Texas, 1528-1687. Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society 72: 23-44.

Wallace, Ernest
n.d. The Habitat and Range of the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache Indians before 1867. Unpublished ms on file at the Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.

Winfrey, Dorman H. and James M. Day
1995 The Indian Papers of Texas and the Southwest 1825-1916. 5 vols. Texas State Historical Association, Austin.

Young, Robert
1983 Apachean Languages. The Apachean Culture Pattern and Its Origins. In Handbook of North American Indians, Vol.10, Southwest:393-401.


Handbook of Texas Online, a searchable encyclopedia of Texas history, culture, and geography produced by the Texas State Historical Association and the General Libraries at University of Texas at Austin.

Center for American History at the University of Texas at Austin, a special collections library and archive with extensive materials on Texas history.

Cartographic Connections, University of Texas at Arlington. An excellent compilation of historic maps, particularly focused on Texas and Mexico. Images can be searched at different zoom lengths.

David Rumsey Historical Maps site, offers an extensive array of digitized historical maps from around the globe, provided in searchable formats.

Photography Collection of Western History, Denver Public Library. Extensive collection of digital images of people and places in the west.

Meeting of Peoples: Americaexhibit, an international collaborative exhibit by the Library of Congress

Campfire Stories with George Catlin. This Smithsonian Institution online exhibit features a gallery of the artist’s paintings of native people along with stories and insights on life in the west during the 1830s-1840s.

Kiowa Drawings in the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. An online exhibit of images by Kiowa artists, including historic pictorial calendars, ledgerbooks, and the work of the Fort Marion artists, along with drawings and notes on Kiowa heraldry and designs compiled by ethnographer James Mooney.